Luckily DEB's can be converted to RPM's with a package called Alien which can be installed through DNF.
Download your preferred version of Cura, I wrote this guide around the recently release version 2.1.2.
# dnf install -y alien
Convert the DEB to RPM:
# cd ~/Downoads
# alien -vr Cura-2.1.2-Linux.deb
Unfortunately at this point the RPM won't install successfully so it needs to be modified:
# dnf install -y rpmrebuild
Fix the RPM:
# rpmrebuild -pe cura-2.1.2-2.x86_64.rpm
After a short time rpmrebuild will open a file in vi, the below lines need to be removed (move cursor to appropriate line with arrow keys and press the d key twice):
# /opt can be found at the top of the %dir list:
%dir %attr(0755, root, root) "/opt"
# the remaining lines are at the bottom of the file:
%dir %attr(0755, root, root) "/usr"
%dir %attr(0755, root, root) "/usr/bin"
%dir %attr(0755, root, root) "/usr/share"
%dir %attr(0755, root, root) "/usr/share/applications"
Fedora 24 note:
If you are using Fedora 24 you will also need to remove this line and create a symlink, Fedora 24 shipped with Python 3.5 but Cura was built for Python 3.4, this step is not needed for Fedora 23:
Now save and exit, press the : key then type wq and press enter (:wq), rpmrebuild will now now prompt to continue, press Y to build the modified RPM file.
Once rpmrebuild has finished building the new RPM it will return the location of the new RPM:
Fedora 24 note:
Before installing create a softlink to a file Cura will be expecting to find but doesn't exist, this step is not needed for Fedora 23:
# ln -s /usr/lib64/libpython3.5m.so.1.0 /usr/lib64/libpython3.4m.so.1.0
You can now install the new RPM using DNF:
dnf install '/home/user/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/cura-2.1.2-2.x86_64.rpm'
And that should be it, run Cura from the Applications menu and if all went well it will open just fine.